Science

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 2018-07-18 18:00 

Phys.org

Barley heads east—living plant varieties reveal ancient migration routes across Eurasia...

The emergence of agriculture is one of the most important transitions in the development of human societies, as it allowed the establishment of settled communities, specialization of labour and technological innovation....

 2018-07-18 18:00 

Phys.org

Secular countries can expect future economic growth, confirms new study...

New research measuring the importance of religion in 109 countries spanning the entire 20th century has reignited an age-old debate around the link between secularisation and economic growth. The study, published in Science Advances, has shown that a decl...

 2018-07-18 18:00 

Phys.org

For one tropical tree, effective seed dispersal relies especially on elephants...

Deer, bears, gibbons, but especially elephants, play an important role in seed dispersal for a large-fruited tree in the forests of Thailand, according to a new study publishing July 18 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Kim McConkey of the National I...

 2018-07-18 18:00 

Phys.org

Air pollution negatively associated with US national park visitation...

More than 300 million visitors travel to U.S. national parks every year to experience America's iconic landscapes. But poor air quality in parks may negatively affect visitation, according to a study published in Science Advances by researchers from I...

 2018-07-18 18:00 

Phys.org

Great Barrier Reef not bouncing back as before, but there is hope...

The Great Barrier Reef is losing its ability to recover from disturbances, but effective local management could revive its capacity to bounce back....

 2018-07-18 17:55 

Phys.org

Martian atmosphere behaves as one...

New research using a decade of data from ESA's Mars Express has found clear signs of the complex martian atmosphere acting as a single, interconnected system, with processes occurring at low and mid levels significantly affecting those seen higher up....

 2018-07-18 17:47 

Phys.org

Billion-year-old lake deposit yields clues to Earth's ancient biosphere...

A sample of ancient oxygen, teased out of a 1.4 billion-year-old evaporative lake deposit in Ontario, provides fresh evidence of what the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere were like during the interval leading up to the emergence of animal life....

 2018-07-18 17:22 

Phys.org

Study first to confirm where baby white sharks 'hang out' in the North Atlantic...

Using cutting-edge satellite and acoustic technology, a researcher from Florida Atlantic University's Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute is among a team of scientists who are the first to confirm the movement patterns and seasonal migrations of bab...

 2018-07-18 17:18 

Phys.org

X-ray data may be first evidence of a star devouring a planet...

For nearly a century, astronomers have puzzled over the curious variability of young stars residing in the Taurus-Auriga constellation some 450 light years from Earth. One star in particular has drawn astronomers' attention. Every few decades, the sta...

 2018-07-18 17:16 

Phys.org

Team creates high-fidelity images of Sun's atmosphere...

In 1610, Galileo redesigned the telescope and discovered Jupiter's four largest moons. Nearly 400 years later, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope used its powerful optics to look deep into space—enabling scientists to pin down the age of the univ...

 2018-07-18 17:06 

Phys.org

The relationship between charge density waves and superconductivity? It's complicated...

For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material....

 2018-07-18 17:00 

Phys.org

Light-controlled polymers can switch between sturdy and soft...

MIT researchers have designed a polymer material that can change its structure in response to light, converting from a rigid substance to a softer one that can heal itself when damaged....

 2018-07-18 17:00 

Phys.org

Bacterial armor could be a new target for antibiotics...

For over a century, scientists have studied E. coli, one of the bacteria that cause food poisoning, as a model for fighting infections. Such research has led to a variety of antibiotics that penetrate the protective cell walls of bacteria to kill them....

 2018-07-18 17:00 

Phys.org

Atlantic circulation is not collapsing—but as it shifts gears, warming will reaccelerate...

A huge circulation pattern in the Atlantic Ocean took a starring role in the 2004 movie "The Day After Tomorrow." In that fictional tale the global oceanic current suddenly stops and New York City freezes over....

 2018-07-18 14:28 

Phys.org

NASA's new mini satellite will study Milky Way's halo...

Astronomers keep coming up short when they survey "normal" matter, the material that makes up galaxies, stars and planets. A new NASA-sponsored CubeSat mission called HaloSat, deployed from the International Space Station on July 13, will help sci...

 2018-07-18 13:58 

Phys.org

Splitting water: Nanoscale imaging yields key insights...

In the quest to realize artificial photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel—just as plants do—researchers need to not only identify materials to efficiently perform photoelectrochemical water splitting, but also ...

 2018-07-18 13:49 

Phys.org

Google braces for huge EU fine over Android...

Google prepared Wednesday to be hit with huge EU fine for freezing out rivals of its Android mobile phone system in a ruling that could spark new tensions between Brussels and Washington....

 2018-07-18 13:34 

Phys.org

Life on Earth kept to darkness for much of history, study finds...

Tiny creatures that lived in the dark—either underground or below the sea floor—were the dominant life forms on Earth for much of the planet's history, a study suggests....

 2018-07-18 13:17 

Phys.org

Solar supercapacitor could power future of wearable sensors...

A new form of solar-powered supercapacitor could help make future wearable technologies lighter and more energy-efficient, scientists say....

 2018-07-18 12:50 

Phys.org

New evidence suggests the Devonian Nekton Revolution never occurred...

A pair of researchers at Yale University has found evidence that suggests the Devonian Nekton Revolution never actually occurred. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Christopher Whalen and Derek Briggs describe their study and ...

 2018-07-18 12:30 

Phys.org

A possibly better way to measure our own galaxy speed moving through space...

A pair of physicists at Aix-Marseille University has offered a possible way to measure the speed of our own galaxy more accurately as it moves through space. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, Julien Bel and Christian Marinon...

 2018-07-18 10:52 

Phys.org

A new approach for narrowing down huge calculations by focusing on a single, predictive parameter...

A team that includes nuclear physicists, a machine-learning researcher and an NC State mathematician has created a new approach for narrowing down huge calculations such as those involved in quantum physics by focusing on a single, predictive parameter. T...

 2018-07-18 10:08 

Phys.org

Study finds climate determines shapes of river basins...

There are more than 1 million river basins carved into the topography of the United States, each collecting rainwater to feed the rivers that cut through them. Some basins are as small as individual streams, while others span nearly half the continent, en...

 2018-07-18 10:00 

Phys.org

Supersharp images from new VLT adaptive optics...

ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has achieved first light with a new adaptive optics mode called laser tomography—and has captured remarkably sharp test images of the planet Neptune and other objects. The MUSE instrument working with the GALACSI...

 2018-07-18 06:26 

Phys.org

Artificial intelligence technology could help protect water supplies...

Progress on new artificial intelligence (AI) technology could make monitoring at water treatment plants cheaper and easier and help safeguard public health....

 2018-07-18 06:09 

Phys.org

Materials processing tricks enable engineers to create new laser material...

By doping alumina crystals with neodymium ions, engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a new laser material that is capable of emitting ultra-short, high-power pulses—a combination that could potentially yield smaller, mo...

 2018-07-18 06:08 

Phys.org

No more zigzags: Scientists uncover mechanism that stabilizes fusion plasmas...

Sawtooth swings—up-and-down ripples found in everything from stock prices on Wall Street to ocean waves—occur periodically in the temperature and density of the plasma that fuels fusion reactions in doughnut-shaped facilities called tokamaks. ...

 2018-07-17 23:10 

Phys.org

Concentrated wealth in agricultural populations may account for the decline of polygyny...

Across small-scale societies, the practice of some males taking multiple wives is thought to be associated with extreme disparities of wealth. But in fact, polygyny has been more common among relatively egalitarian low-tech horticulturalists than in highl...

 2018-07-17 23:10 

Phys.org

Research on British teeth unlocks potential for new insights into ancient diets...

Goofy, yellow and crooked: British smiles have sometimes had a less-than-flattering international image, but a new study has put tartar from our infamously bad teeth to good use....

 2018-07-17 20:51 

Phys.org

Oleo Sponge successful in real-world conditions off California coast...

The Oleo Sponge, a patent-pending technology to clean oil spills invented at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, has lived up to its promise in an experiment conducted off the coast of Southern California in April....

 2018-07-17 17:23 

Phys.org

Close-ups of grain boundaries reveal how sulfur impurities make nickel brittle...

Engineers at the University of California San Diego have shed new light on a scientific mystery regarding the atomic-level mechanism of the sulfur embrittlement of nickel, a classic problem that has puzzled the scientific community for nearly a century. T...

 2018-07-17 16:34 

Phys.org

Solutions to water challenges reside at the interface...

In response to rising water scarcity, leading Argonne National Laboratory researcher Seth Darling describes the most advanced research innovations that could address global clean water accessibility. His comprehensive paper focuses on understanding and co...

 2018-07-17 16:32 

Phys.org

EU set to fine Google billions over Android: sources...

The EU is set to fine US internet giant Google several billion euros this week for freezing out rivals of its Android mobile phone system, sources said, in a ruling that risks fresh tensions with Washington....

 2018-07-17 16:13 

Phys.org

Researchers enable transmission of specific colors of light over long distances...

Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. They explored a new way to select and send light of a specific color u...

 2018-07-17 15:00 

Phys.org

Social isolation: Animals that break away from the pack can influence evolution...

For some animals—such as beetles, ants, toads, and primates—short-term social isolation can be just as vital as social interaction to development and long-term evolution. In a review published July 17 in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evoluti...

 2018-07-17 15:00 

Phys.org

High vinculin levels help keep aging fruit fly hearts young...

Our cells tend to lose their shape as we grow older, contributing to many of the effects we experience as aging. This poses particular problems for the heart, where aging can disrupt the protein network within muscle cells that move blood around the body....

 2018-07-17 15:00 

Phys.org

New cost-effective instrument measures molecular dynamics on a picosecond timescale...

Studying the photochemistry, or chemical results of light, has shown that ultraviolet radiation can set off harmful chemical reactions in the human body and, alternatively, can provide "photo-protection" by dispersing extra energy. To better under...

 2018-07-17 15:00 

Phys.org

Exploding waves from colliding dissipative pulses...

The interaction of traveling waves in dissipative systems, physical systems driven by energy dissipation, can yield unexpected and sometimes chaotic results. These waves, known as dissipative pulses (DSs), are driving experimental studies in a variety of ...

 2018-07-17 14:18 

Phys.org

Jupiter's moon count reaches 79, including tiny 'oddball'...

Twelve new moons orbiting Jupiter have been found—11 "normal" outer moons, and one that they're calling an "oddball." This brings Jupiter's total number of known moons to a whopping 79—the most of any planet in our Sola...

 2018-07-17 14:12 

Phys.org

It's no vibranium or proto-adamantium, but researcher's new alloy comes close...

Four times stronger than stainless steel, a unique alloy blends chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese and silicon....

 2018-07-17 13:28 

Phys.org

Variations of a single gene drive diverse pigeon feather patterns...

In a new study, a team led by University of Utah biologists has discovered that different versions of a single gene, called NDP (Norrie Disease Protein), have unexpected links between color patterns in pigeons, and vision defects in humans. These gene var...

 2018-07-17 13:10 

Phys.org

Mode changing and giant pulses found in a millisecond pulsar...

Canadian astronomers have identified mode changing and giant pulses in the millisecond pulsar known as PSR B1957+20. It is the first time when mode changing mechanism has been observed in a millisecond pulsar. The finding is detailed in a paper published ...

 2018-07-17 13:00 

Phys.org

Increase in wildfires causing bad air days in US Northwest to get worse over the past 28 years...

A pair of researchers with the University of Washington has found that an increase in wildfire size and duration over the past 28 years has led to worsening bad air days in the U.S. Northwest. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academ...

 2018-07-17 12:50 

Phys.org

New insight into Greenland's melting glaciers...

New research into Greenland's glaciers will help bring accurate sea level rise forecasts which are crucial in preparing for the impacts of climate change—a step closer....

 2018-07-17 12:40 

Phys.org

Study suggests women in biomedical sciences have equal chance of success in sustaining grant funding...

A team of researchers at the National Institutes of Health has found that women in biomedical sciences are just as successful as men in sustaining grant funding. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group descri...

 2018-07-17 10:50 

Phys.org

New study could hold key to hack-proof systems...

Major data breaches have made worldwide headlines of late but an international consortium of scientists—including a professor from Heriot-Watt—have developed a new technique that could result in hack-proof systems....

 2018-07-17 10:43 

Phys.org

An atom-thick graphene membrane for industrial gas separation...

Chemical engineers at EPFL have demonstrated for the first time that an atom-thick graphene membrane can separate gas mixtures with a high-efficiency. The "ultimate" membrane is scalable, making it a breakthrough for industrial gas separation....

 2018-07-17 10:31 

Phys.org

Researchers work to advance understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities in NIF, astrophysics...

In a Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) "Special Feature" paper published online June 26, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and University of Michigan researchers reported on recent experiments and techniques design...

 2018-07-17 10:20 

Phys.org

Nanocrystal links could lead to better electronics, scientists say...

Chemists and engineers today are very interested in a kind of nanotechnology enabled by tiny islands of nanoparticles called "colloidal nanocrystals." They can be made out of abundant and non-toxic materials, and they can be easily tweaked to have...

 2018-07-17 10:12 

Phys.org

Technique may improve lung delivery of bacteria-killing phage...

A new delivery system for bacteriophages—viruses that selectively attack harmful bacteria—could help give doctors a new way to battle lung infections that threaten older patients and people with cystic fibrosis....

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